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For some conditions (e.g. some types of cancer), starting treatment earlier can lead to better results. The purpose of screening is to find the health condition, so that treatment can be started as early as possible.
Screening tests can be chemical analyses of a body substance (e.g. blood or urine), imaging (e.g. x-rays or ultrasound), physical examinations (e.g. of breasts), or simply asking questions (e.g. about depression or alcohol).